Kynurenic Acid and Its Analog SZR104 Exhibit Strong Antiinflammatory Effects and Alter the Intracellular Distribution and Methylation Patterns of H3 Histones in Immunochallenged Microglia-Enriched Cultures of Newborn Rat Brains

Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is implicated in antiinflammatory processes in the brain through several cellular and molecular targets, among which microglia-related mechanisms are of paramount importance. In this study, we describe the effects of KYNA and one of its analogs, the brain-penetrable SZR104 (N-(...

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Main Authors: Szabó Melinda
Biróné Lajkó Noémi
Dulka Karolina
Szatmári István
Fülöp Ferenc
Mihály András
Vécsei László
Gulya Sándor
Format: Article
Published: 2022
Series:INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES 23 No. 3
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doi:10.3390/ijms23031079

mtmt:32677622
Online Access:http://publicatio.bibl.u-szeged.hu/24040
Description
Summary:Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is implicated in antiinflammatory processes in the brain through several cellular and molecular targets, among which microglia-related mechanisms are of paramount importance. In this study, we describe the effects of KYNA and one of its analogs, the brain-penetrable SZR104 (N-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-3-(morpholinomethyl)-4-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxamide), on the intracellular distribution and methylation patterns of histone H3 in immunochallenged microglia cultures. Microglia-enriched secondary cultures made from newborn rat forebrains were immunochallenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The protein levels of selected inflammatory markers C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) and C-C motif chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1), histone H3, and posttranslational modifications of histone H3 lys methylation sites (H3K9me3 and H3K36me2, marks typically associated with opposite effects on gene expression) were analyzed using quantitative fluorescent immunocytochemistry and western blots in control or LPS-treated cultures with or without KYNA or SZR104. KYNA and SZR104 reduced levels of the inflammatory marker proteins CXCL10 and CCR1 after LPS-treatment. Moreover, KYNA and SZR104 favorably affected histone methylation patterns as H3K9me3 and H3K36me2 immunoreactivities, and histone H3 protein levels returned toward control values after LPS treatment. The cytoplasmic translocation of H3K9me3 from the nucleus indicated inflammatory distress, a process that could be inhibited by KYNA and SZR104. Thus, KYNA signaling and metabolism, and especially brain-penetrable KYNA analogs such as SZR104, could be key targets in the pathway that connects chromatin structure and epigenetic mechanisms with functional consequences that affect neuroinflammation and perhaps neurodegeneration.
Physical Description:Terjedelem: 23-Azonosító: 1079
ISSN:1661-6596