Dysfunction of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and Mitochondria (MT) in Alzheimer's Disease the role of the ER-MT cross-talk /

A common feature of neurodegenerative diseases is the formation of misfolded, mostly enzyme resistant proteins. These substances may form toxic assemblies according to the current concept of the neurodegenerative diseases. Overlapping of the misfolded proteins is typical in these disorders. The form...

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Bibliographic Details
Main Authors: Völgyi Katalin
Juhász Gábor Dénes
Kovács Zsolt
Penke Botond
Format: Article
Published: 2015
Series:CURRENT ALZHEIMER RESEARCH 12 No. 7
doi:10.2174/1567205012666150710095035

mtmt:2920388
Online Access:http://publicatio.bibl.u-szeged.hu/12337
Description
Summary:A common feature of neurodegenerative diseases is the formation of misfolded, mostly enzyme resistant proteins. These substances may form toxic assemblies according to the current concept of the neurodegenerative diseases. Overlapping of the misfolded proteins is typical in these disorders. The formation of misfolded proteins and toxic aggregates point to a common pathway of these disorders: failure in normal protein folding in the ER as a consequence of ER-stress and mitochondrial energy production. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a rather heterogeneous, multifactorial disorder with wide clinical heterogeneity and is classified into several subtypes. In AD the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and formation of toxic beta-amyloid (Abeta) structures occur intraneuronally. Abeta affects both ER and mitochondria and disturbs Ca2+-homeostasis of the cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main pathological events in AD. Mitochondria accumulate Abeta derived from the ER/Golgi or from the mitochondriaassociated ER-membranes (MAM). Free radicals, oxidative stress and increasing Ca2+-concentration in mitochondria cause decreased ATP production. Mitochondrial dynamic and trafficking are also altered as a result of Abeta toxicity. Synaptic mitochondria show a very high vulnerability. Depletion of Ca2+ level in the ER results in dysfunction of protein folding and evokes unfolded protein response (UPR), and affects also mitochondria. MAM may play special role in the ERmitochondria cross talk. Mitochondria themselves (using mitochondria-targeting antioxidants such as MitoQ) could be a special target for AD treatment. Another targets are the UPR cascade proteins (PERK, IRE1, ATF6) and receptors involved in Ca2+ -level stabilization of the ER (Ryr, IP3R).
Physical Description:655-672
ISSN:1567-2050